高考英语一轮复*语法专项专题二代词和介词语法项目(二)介词课件北师大版

发布于:2021-07-26 04:21:57

专题二 代词和介词
语法项目(二) 介 词

语法 要点 讲 练 悟通

常用介词
——典题尝试(单句语法填空)
1.(2017·全国卷Ⅲ) After school she plans to take a year off to model full-time before going to university to get a degree in engineering or architecture.
2.(2016·全国卷Ⅲ)Chopsticks are not used everywhere in Asia. In India, for example,most people traditionally eat with their hands.

——规则点拨
一、表示地点的介词 1.表示地理位置的 in, on, to。
in 表示在某范围内,on 指“与……毗邻”,to 指在某环境 范围之外。 Changchun is in the northeast of China. 长春在中国的东北。(长春是中国的组成部分) Mongolia is on the north of China. 蒙古在中国的北边。(蒙古与中国接壤) Japan is to the east of China. 日本在中国的东方。(中国和日本是隔海相望的)

2.表示“在……上”的 on 和 in。 on 只表示在某物的表面上,而用 in 表示占去某物一部分。 There is a book on the piece of paper. 在纸上有本书。 There is an interesting article in the newspaper. 在报纸上有篇有趣的文章。
3.表示“穿过……”的 through 和 across。 through 表示从内部通过,与 in 有关;across 则表示从一 端至另一端在表面上的通过,与 on 有关。 Water flows through the pipe. 水流过水管。 The old man walked across the street. 这位老人走过街道。

4.above, below, over, under, on, beneath 的区别。

above

在某物的斜上方

below

在某物的斜下方

over

在某物的正上方

under

在某物的正下方

on

在某物的上面(两者接触)

beneath

在某物的下面(两者接触)

二、表示时间的介词
1.表示时间的 at, in, on。 (1)at 表示片刻的时间。例如:at noon, at midnight, at the end of, at that time, at the beginning of, at the age of, at Christmas 等。 (2)in 表示一段的时 间。例如 : in the morning, in the afternoon, in the evening, in October, in 1998, in summer, in the past, in the future 等。 (3)on 是指在特定的某一天或某一天的上午、下午和晚上。 例 如 : on Monday, on Christmas morning, on the following day, on a warm morning 等。

2.表示时间的 since, for 和 from。 (1)since 表示从过去到现在的一段时间的过程,常与现在 完成时连用。
We have not seen each other since 2005. 从 2005 年开始我们就没有见过彼此。 (2)“for+时间段”,表示行为或状态持续的时间。 I have been teaching in the school for ten years. 我已经在这所学校教书十年了。 (3)from 表示从时间的某一点开始,不涉及与现在的关系。 一般多与现在时、过去时、将来时连用。
I hope to do morning exercises from today. 我希望从今天开始做早操。

3.表示时间的 after 和 in。 (1)after 表示在某一具体时间点之后,after 短语和过去时 态或将来时态连用。after 有时也可以表示在一段时间之后 (常用在过去时里)。 After seven the rain began to fall. 七点之后雨开始下。 (2)in 短语和将来时态连用。 We'll be back in three days. 我们会在三天之后回来的。

4.表示时间的 over 和 during。 (1)“over+名词”表示“一边……一边……;在……过 程中”。 Let's have a talk about it over a coffee. 我们边喝咖啡边讨论。 (2)“during+名词”表示“在……期间”,通常用于一 般过去时。 He picked up Japanese during his stay in Japan. 他在日本期间学会了日语。

三、表示“除了”的介词 1.besides 指“除了……还有,再加上”,也可用 in addition to。
Besides stamps, he also collects ancient coins. 除了邮票,他还收集古币。 2.except 指“除了,减去……”,不能放在句首。 All went out except me. 除了我,其他人都出去了。 3.but 与 except 意思*似,表示“除了……外”,经常用在 no, all, nobody, anywhere, everything 等和其他疑问词后面。 I never saw him reading anything but the newspaper. 除了报纸之外,我从来没见过他读过什么。 4.except for 表示“如无……就,只是”,表明具体原因。 His diary is good except for a few spelling mistakes. 除了少量拼写错误外,他的日记其他方面都很好。

四、表示“方式和方法”的介词
1.as, like 两者都可表示“如,像”。 as 表示“如,像”时,可以用作介词,也可用作连词。 like 表示“如,像”时,通常用作介词,但是在口语中也可用作 连词。like 含有“好像是”之意,意指“实际上不是”。 I long to fly like a bird in the sky. 我渴望像只小鸟一样在天空飞翔。 They were all dressed as clowns. 他们都打扮得像小丑。

2.介词 by, in, with。 by 表示使用某种交通工具,且名词前面不加冠词。 in 通常指使用某种语言、某种字体等。 with 指使用有形的工具、物体或身体的某些部分。 You can reach the island by road or by sea. 你可以通过陆路或海路到达这个岛屿。 You must write the title of the passage in capitals. 你要用大写字母写这篇文章的题目。 The monkey can reach the bananas on the tree with some tools. 猴子会使用某种工具够到树上的香蕉。

五、表示原因的介词
1.because of/on account of 意思是“因为,由于”,引起的介词短语通常作状语,可以放 于句首或句中。 He didn't attend the meeting because of the heavy rain. 因为这场大雨他没有参加会议。
2.due to 意思是“因为,由于”,通常只作表语,作状语时不用于句首。 His illness was due to smoking and drinking. 他生病是因为吸烟和喝酒。

3.thanks to 意思是“因为,由于,多亏了”,多用于句首。 Thanks to his timely help, we finished the task in time. 多亏了他及时的帮助,我们按时完成了任务。
4.for 意思是“因为”,常表示为了某一目的、事业的原因,而 but for 表示“如果不是因为,要不是”。 He gave up smoking for his bad health. 因为身体不好他戒烟了。 He would have played but for a knee injury. 他要不是膝部有伤的话,就上场了。

5.at 和 with (1)at 和一些形容词连用表示引起某种情绪的原因。 be angry at/be surprised at。 (2)with 和一些名词搭配也可表示原因,指由于外界而影响到内 部,意为“因为;由于”。 jump with joy (高兴地跳起来), shake with anger (气得发抖)。

[注意事项]

1.“by+交通方式”,中间不加冠词;如果中间加冠词或形容

词性物主代词,则介词要用 in, on 等。

by bike=on the bike, by train=in the train。

2.on 有时加上特定的词表示“通过某种方式”。

on foot 步行

on a horse 骑马

——对点演练(单句语法填空)
1.(2018·河南豫南九校质量考评)My parents and teachers were surprised at my bad performance.
2.(2018·河*耸兄氐愀咧兄始)Ocean currents changed with the climate and probably led the fish into different areas.
3.(2018·江西九江一中第一次月考)Las Vegas is a very exciting city _w__it_h__ great hotels, fine restaurants and even casinos.
4.I have no idea about what colours look good against my skin.
5.The gunshot sent the birds flying in all directions.

固定搭配中的介词
——典题尝试(单句语法填空)
1.(2016·全国卷Ⅰ)But my connection with pandas goes back to my days on a TV show in the mid-1980s ...
2.(2016·全国卷Ⅱ)Most of us are more focused on our tasks in the morning than we are later in the day.
3.(2015·全国卷Ⅰ)For those who fly to Guilin, it's only an hour away by car and offers all the scenery of the better-known city.

——规则点拨

一、介词与名词的常用搭配

1.at+n.表示状态

at a loss 不知所措

at peace 处于和*中

at war 在战争中

at work 在工作

2.其他以 at 开头的介词短语

at the beginning of

在……的开始

at the cost of

以……的代价

at the risk of

冒……的危险

at the mercy of

在……支配下;任由……摆布

3.on+n.表示状态 on exhibition/show 在展出 on sale 出售;打折 on the decrease/increase on holiday/vacation
4.其他以 on 开头的介词短语 on account of on behalf of on no account/condition

on fire 着火 on the way 在途中 在减少/在增加 在度假
因为 代表 决不

5.by+n.表示方式 by accident 偶然 by chance 偶然 by hand 手工 by the day 按天算
6.in+n.表示方式 in cash 用现金付款 in detail 详细地 in length 在长度上

by air/plane 乘飞机 by coincidence 碰巧 by mistake 错误地 by nature 天生地
in depth 在深度上 in height 在高度上 in English 用英语

7.其他以 in 开头的介词短语 in no time 立刻 in place of 代替 in addition to 另外 in return 作为回报 in exchange for 作为交换 in case of 万一;如果;假如 in memory of 为了纪念…… in support of 为支持……

in no way 决不 in possession of 拥有;占有 in charge of 掌管…… in spite of 尽管 in favor of 支持;赞成 in honour of 为向……表示敬意

8.of+n.表示特征(等于相应的形容词)

of benefit 有益处的

of help 有帮助的

of importance 重要的

of significance 有意义的

of use 有用的

of value 有价值的

9.out of+n.表示状态

out of balance 失去*衡 out of breath 上气不接下气

out of control 不受控制

out of date 过期

out of order 出故障

out of sight 看不到

out of the question 不可能 out of work 失业

10.under+n.表示被动

under attack 遭到袭击

under pressure 在压力下

under treatment 在治疗中 under control 处于控制之中

11.with+n.表示方式

with delight/joy 高兴地

with difficulty 困难地

with ease 轻而易举地

with fear 害怕地

with pleasure 乐意地

12.beyond+n.表示“超出……,难以……”

beyond compare 无与伦比 beyond reach 够不到

beyond description 难以描述

beyond expression/words 难以表达

二、介词与形容词的常用搭配

1.be+adj.+about be anxious about be curious about be particular about be worried/concerned about
2.be+adj.+at be angry at 因……生气 be astonished at 对……吃惊

忧虑…… 对……好奇 对……讲究/挑剔 对……担心
be good at 擅长 be present at 出席

3.be+adj.+in

be absorbed in 专注于…… be active in 积极于……

be dressed in 穿着……

be engaged in 忙于……

be rich in 富含……

be occupied in 忙于……

4.be+adj.+for

be eager for 渴望……

be famous for 以……著名

be fit for 适合,胜任…… be ready for 准备好……

be sorry for 对……感到抱歉

be prepared for 为……做好准备

5.be+adj.+from

be absent from 缺席

be different from 不同于

be far from 远离

be free from 不受……影响

6.be+adj.+to be close to 接*…… be equal to 等于…… be friendly to 对……友好 be kind to 对……友好 be grateful to 对……心存感激
7.be+adj.+of be aware of 意识到…… be proud of 因……而自豪

be devoted to 致力于…… be familiar to 对……来说熟悉 be harmful to 对……有危害 be similar to 与……相似
be fond of 喜欢…… be short of 缺乏……

8.be+adj.+with be busy with be familiar with be combined with be patient with be popular with be pleased with by angry with (sb.)

忙于…… 对……熟悉 与……结合 对……有耐心 受……的欢迎 对……感到满意 对(某人)发怒

——对点演练(单句语法填空)
1.(2018·南昌五校一模)Nowadays, millions of lonely singles are now going online.
2.(2018·河南部分重点中学联考)A woman, sitting next to the boy, discovered he was on a school trip and was told to meet his teacher at the bus stop.
3.(2018·河北正定中学月考)Sichuan is home to pandas, also the starting point of the Southern Silk Road.

命题热点 题 型研通

一、介词在语法填空中的命题点 介词在语法填空题中通常以无提示词的形式进行考查,通常从以 下几个方面进行考查: 1.考查常用介词的用法
(2016·四川高考)The mother continued to care for the young panda ___f_o_r___ more than two years. 解析:“for+时间段”表示持续一段时间。句意:熊猫妈妈对孩 子的照顾会持续两年多。

2.固定搭配中的介词使用 (2016·天津高考改编)I hate it when she calls me at work — I'm always too busy to carry ___o_n__ a conversation with her.
解析:carry on “进行,从事”,为固定搭配。

二、介词在短文改错中的命题点 1.介词与名词搭配不当

示例

(2017·全国卷Ⅰ) It was a relief and I came to a sudden stop just in the middle on the road.
答案:_o_n_→__o_f____

介词与名词搭配时用哪一个介词取决于其后的 点拨
名词,这时要根据名词选择适当的介词。

2.介词与动词搭配不当

(2016·全国卷Ⅲ) Now I am leaving home to

示例

college.

答案:t_o_→__fo_r__

介词与动词搭配时介词的使用取决于动词,这时 点拨
要根据动词选择适当的介词。

3.介词与形容词搭配不当
You should eat more fruit and vegetables, 示例
which are rich of vitamins. 答案:_o_f_→__in___ 介词与形容词搭配时介词的使用是由形容词决 点拨 定的,这时要根据形容词选择适当的介词。

4.介词的多余

①(2017·全国卷Ⅲ) When I look at this picture

of myself, I realize of how fast time flies.

示例

答案:_去__掉__第__二_个___o_f __

②(2015·陕西高考)My soccer coach retired in

last week.

答案:_去__掉__in_

①及物动词后直接跟宾语,无需加介词; 点拨
②last, next后跟名词表时间时前面无需加介词。

5.介词的缺失

示例

(2016·全国卷Ⅰ) My uncle says that he

never dreams becoming rich in a short

period of time.

答案:d_r_e_a_m__s_后__加__o_f_

点拨 不及物动词后跟宾语时应加相应的介词。

6.*惯搭配中介词的错用

(2016·6月浙江高考) While they chatted, my

示例 father would lift my sister and me up to sit in

the top of the fridge.

答案:i_n_→__o_n

在*惯搭配中介词的使用是相对固定的,不能 点拨
随意改动。

三、介词在书面表达中的增分点 [增分技法]
正确使用介词,写好句子。 ①演出以一段五十多岁的人耳熟能详的经典音乐开始。 The performance began with a piece of classical music which was familiar to people in their fifties. ②我常把王海误认为他的双胞胎弟弟,因为他们长得太像了。 I often mistake Wang Hai for his twin brother because they look so similar/very much alike.

[巧用增分] ①对父母而言,没有什么能与孩子的身心健康相比。(compare)
As for parents, nothing can be compared with their children's physical and mental health. ②尽管山高林密,医护人员还是迅速地赶到出事地点,实施援救。
(despite) Despite the high mountains and thick forests, the doctors and nurses rushed to the scene of the accident to carry out the rescue.
③你该就刚才的所作所为向在场的人道歉。(apologize) You should apologize to the people present for what you have just done.

备考能力 二 级练通

Ⅰ.单句语法填空

[题点对点练]

1.Our office wasn't far from Chinatown, where I found some

very good Chinese restaurants. 2. Everybody was touched beyond words after they heard her

moving story. 3.The Apple Watch is a very small computer a person wears on
his or her wrist. It can do many of the same things as an

iPhone. 4.In addition to checking your spelling in your essay, you

must make sure your grammar is correct. 5.The policeman stopped him when he was driving home and
accused him of speeding.

Ⅱ.单句改错 1.There are shops on all sides of the street.

all→both

2 . There are many difficulties and problems that we can't

overcome with only their own efforts.

their→our

3.About 36% of them are fond of surfing the Internet, which

helps him know about the latest news and current affairs in

the world.

him→them

4.Global warming is having a great effect at hundreds of plant

and animal species around the world, changing some living

patterns.

at→on

5.I believe it's the best way to get close nature and enjoy its

beauty.

close 后加 to

6.40% of my classmates speak in support for the idea. for→of

Ⅰ.语法填空

[题型综合练]

(2018·* 顶 山 模 拟 )Human potential is unlimited. Unlike

computers, you'll never come across a situation __1__ your

brain says the hard drive is full. You can constantly push your

limits, __2__ (reach) greater heights.

__3__ (unfortunate), many do not make good use of their

true potential, and lay it to waste by engaging in tasks that are

a poor use of their time and energy. Here __4__ (be) two

ways to live below your true potential: 1.Blame the past instead of focusing __5__ the present.

Some people spend their lives living in the past. They regret

about what they could have done. __6__ , the past is the past,

and no matter how much time we spend thinking about it, it

doesn't change anything.

2.Set small goals. Many people set small goals because they're afraid __7__ (fail). Actually__8__ they're really afraid of is to realize that they've always had all the power to achieve everything they want and that they have wasted their own time and many __9__ (dream).Stop settling for less and set your highest goals today. You owe it to__10__ (you).
语篇解读:本文是一篇议论文。主要论述了人的潜能是无 限的,但是很多人没有充分利用并发挥自己真正的潜能, 对此,文章主要列举了两种表现方式。

1.where 分析句子结构可知,空格处引导定语从句,先行词 是“situation”,为抽象的地点名词,且在定语从句中作地点 状语。故填关系副词 where。
2.reaching 句意:你可以不断挑战自己的极限,达到更高的 高度。分析句子结构可知,此处为非谓语;且逻辑主语“You” 与动词 reach 之间为主动关系。故填现在分词 reaching 作状 语。
3.Unfortunately 句意:不幸的是,很多人没有充分利用他们 真正的潜能……分析句子结构可知,此处需用所给词的副词 形式 Unfortunately,意为“不幸的是”,修饰整个句子。

4.are 分析句子结构可知,该句为全部倒装结构,主语为“two ways”,谓语动词应用复数形式。故填 are。
5.on/upon focus on/upon 是固定短语,意为“集中注意力于, 聚焦于”,符合语境。故填 on/upon。
6.However 句意:他们为过去本可以做而没做的事后悔。然 而,过去就是过去……前后两句话之间为转折关系,且空格 后有逗号隔开,应填副词 However。
7.to fail/of failure be afraid to do/of sth.是固定短语,意为“害 怕(做)某事”,符合语境。故填 to fail/of failure。

8.what 分析句子结构可知,空格处引导主语从句;且从句 中缺少宾语。故填 what。
9.dreams 该空格前有“many”修饰,应用 dream 的复数形 式。故填 dreams。
10.yourself 句意:你欠自己一个最高的目标。由此可知, 此处需填 you 的反身代词 yourself。

Ⅱ.短文改错 (2018·唐山模拟)Being a teacher is always believed to be
one of greatest occupations, because teachers make great contributions for the world. Last week, I got a chance to experience teaching students. Our school asked us to teach some kids live in the countryside. The kids was so happy that they gave me a warm welcome. I teach them English and after class, we played games happily. We had a lot of funs together. When I returned back to school, I missed the students so much. They like me but some of them have kept in touch with me ever since. I felt so proudly of being a teacher.

答案:第一句:greatest 前加 the; for→to 第三句:us→me; live→living 第四句:was→were 第五句:teach→taught 第六句:funs→fun 第七句:去掉 back 第八句:but→and 第九句:proudly→proud

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